The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 after it became apparent that the provisions of the 1992 Climate Convention in Rio de Janeiro were not specific and binding enough to achieve effective climate protection.
In the first period from 2008 to 2012, the industrialized countries that had signed the treaty committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2% compared to 1990 levels. In the second commitment period from 2013-2020, the target was an 8% reduction. The protocol entered into force in 2005 and was ratified by more than 55 countries responsible for more than 55% of CO2 emissions in industrialized countries. Switzerland also ratified the protocol in 2003.